Light-induced negative differential resistance effect in a resistive switching memory device

July 2024Jul 01, 2024Current IssueVol. 63

    July, 2024 | Volume 63
  • Article 2024-07-31

    Solvent-free microfabrication of thin film device using the focused ion beam

    Jeon H.; Song S.; Park S.; Kim J.S.; Ok J.M.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 1-6

    Abstract : We introduce a novel fabrication technique for thin film devices, utilizing Focused Ion Beam micro-machining. Unlike conventional methods requiring post processes such as etching or solvent treatment, this method involves creating a pre-patterning step-like structure on the substrate before growing the thin film, achieving the desired device pattern right after thin film deposition. As an example, we fabricated devices with VO2 thin film of which electrical transport properties are examined. The VO2 devices exhibit robust metal-insulator transition behavior and V-I characteristics, indicating the high quality of the patterned devices. The results indicate that our approach enables intricate patterning, comparable to conventional e-beam lithography, without the risk of sample degradation. The simplicity, stability, and versatility of this technique suggest new possibilities for thin film device fabrication. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Improved dielectric and breakdown traits of polymer composites filled with KH-550 encapsulated multilayer black phosphorus

    Huang H.; Huang Y.; Pan Y.; Wang Y.; Liu H.; Feng Y.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 7-17

    Abstract : Polymer/particles composites are attractive for dielectric energy-storage, but they express difficultly-reconcilable conflict in high dielectric constant and breakdown strength. Here, multilayer black phosphorus (BP) coated by γ-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (KH-550) as filler, and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) as matrix were used to prepare composite films. KH-550 encapsulation enhances BP/matrix interfacial compatibility. Dielectric constant of polymer/BP@KH-550 composite is ∼207 at 20 Hz when filler load is 10 wt% (dielectric loss ∼0.11), combined with direct-current breakdown strength of ∼288 MV m−1. This work is beneficial to facile preparation of dielectric composites with well-balanced dielectric and breakdown properties for capacitive energy-storage. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Gold Nano-colloids impregnated in Langmuir-Blodgett Film of MoS2 flakes as SERS active platform: Fabrication and its application in Malathion detection

    Mitra C.K.; Sharma M.D.; Ghosh M.; Pande S.; Chowdhury J.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 18-31

    Abstract : The current work focuses on fabrication of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of MoS2 flakes with impregnated gold nano particles (AuNPs) as a noble Surface enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) active hetero structure. The hot spots created over the heterostructures work as a potent agent for localization of electromagnetic field resulting in high enhancement of Raman Signals. The LB film of MoS2 flakes with and without the AuNPs were thoroughly characterized in our present work. The efficacy of Au–MoS2 substrate as a SERS sensing platform was investigated up to ultrasensitive concentrations using Raman probe molecules. Moreover, the reproducibility and homogeneity of the substrate was also tested with Raman mapping. The as prepared SERS sensing platform was engaged further for detection of Malathion at trace concentrations. The tests to check on service time was also performed. In the contemporary exploration the fabricated substrate reveals its accuracy and effectivity as a SERS sensor. Thus, in future this substrate can be a novel “Nano-Lab on Chip” device for ultrasensitive detections of chemical and bio-chemical composites. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Deep eutectic solvent-assisted synthesis of gold nanoflowers supported on glassy carbon electrode for DNA sensor application

    Trang N.T.K.; Phuong T.D.V.; Nguyet N.T.; Dien N.D.; Van H.N.; Van Thu V.; Tran M.T.; Pham Hung V.; Tam P.D.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 32-40

    Abstract : Gold nanoflowers (AuNF) were synthesized on a glassy carbon electrode via a one-step, eco-friendly protocol in deep eutectic solvent (DES) of choline choloride and urea, called reline, for label-free detection of DNA hybridization. DES is eco-friendly, low-cost, biocompatible, and nontoxic, and it can be used as an electrolyte to synthesize nanomaterials by using the electrochemical method. In this protocol, highly branched and stable AuNFs were obtained without using any surfactants for DNA sensor application. The electrochemical performance of the AuNF-modified electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimal conditions, the AuNF-based DNA biosensor exhibited a sensitivity of 294.9 Ω nM−1cm−2 and 218 μA nM−1cm−2 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 10−9 M. The remarkable sensitivity and low LOD could be attributed to the good conductivity of AuNFs for accelerating electron transfer, resulting in obvious signal amplification. The DNA biosensor showed good reproducibility (RSD

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    An investigation of the impact of nafion polymer on surface passivation and analysis of degradation in HIT solar cells for improvement performance

    Aida M.N.; Khokhar M.Q.; Zahid M.A.; Rafi Ur Rahman; Park S.; Yi J.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 41-47

    Abstract : The effectiveness of Heterojunction with an intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cell is greatly improved by using Nafion polymer to passivate the surface and reduce carrier recombination processes. The enhancement of high-efficiency solar cells has garnered considerable interest in surface passivation as a potential substitute due to their exceptional electrical properties. There is little research on the optical and electrical characteristics of different levels of Nafion concentration. The HIT solar cells were treated with varying Nafion-passivation concentrations (2.5 wt %, 5 wt %, 10 wt %). The most significant performance improvement is at a concentration of 2.5 wt% after degradation for 8 h. The open-circuit voltage (Voc) climbed to 735.05 mV, and the fill factor (FF) increased at + 3.49 %, followed by the increase of power conversion energy (PCE) at + 0.96 %, both showing a considerable increase compared to a cell made from an unaffected cell. Due to its ability to boost silicon solar cell performance, a low Nafion concentration is preferred. © 2024

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Fabrication perspective of Fe3O4-based cross-cell memristive device for synaptic applications

    Singh V.P.; Singh C.P.; Ranjan H.; Kumar G.; Jaiswal J.; Pandey S.K.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 48-55

    Abstract : Neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses plays a pivotal role in a wide range of essential brain functions, including neural activity (potentiation/depression), learning, cognition, emotion, perception, and consciousness. In this study, we have presented the fabricated cross-cell memristive device that exhibits an analog resistive switching (ARS) device, with Silver (Ag) as active and Platinum (Pt) as inert metal electrodes. The energy bandgap, crystal structure, surface morphology, elemental composition, and electronic properties of the deposited metal-oxide thin film were examined by using UV–Vis spectroscopy, Glancing Angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated resistive switching (RS) device have been studied by the Keithley 4200A SCS parameter analyzer by low triangular DC sweep voltage (-2V/+2V) at room temperature (RT). Furthermore, we have evaluated the outstanding performance of the fabricated cross-cell RS device at a read voltage of 0.1V, and we have also discussed its remarkable linearity. This work will aid researchers in realizing the synaptic behavior of cross-cell devices for neuromorphic computing applications. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Molecular dynamics simulation approach to explore mechanical properties of graphene-polyaniline hybrid sheets

    Mehrafrooz E.; Behnejad H.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 56-65

    Abstract : The exploration of graphene-polyaniline (C3N) structures holds promise in multifunctional materials, offering tailored mechanical and electrical properties with applications from energy storage to electronic devices. However, their utilization across varying temperatures and the inevitability of defects pose challenges that require investigation to understand their mechanical behavior. Hence, we examined mechanical properties under the influence of increasing temperature, considering different types of defects including, single vacancies, divacancies, and Stone-Wales. Results demonstrate that fracture strength and strain of heterostructure are highly sensitive to increasing the temperature up to 1100 K. Remarkably samples with 35 % SVC exhibit fracture strength of 87 GPa, which is unprecedentedly higher than most of the typical heterostructures. In SVC-defected samples with increasing concentration, the most noticeable reduction in Young's modulus is observed. The results provide an insight into creating a heterostructure that could have desired mechanical properties though imperfect and defective for nanoelectronic devices. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Finite temperature properties of rare earth free Fe4CoSi permanent magnet

    Siraj Ul H.; Khan I.; Hong J.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 66-71

    Abstract : Developing rare-earth free permanent magnet is attracting extensive research efforts for several device applications and other issues. Here, we investigate the temperature-dependent magnetic properties of the Fe4CoSi alloy. The Fe4CoSi alloy shows a high critical temperature of 980 K with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. At room temperature, it exhibits a magnetization of 1.44 T, anisotropy constant of 0.8 MJ/m3, and a magnetic hardness parameter of 0.75. We obtain the (BH)max of 554 kJ/m3 at 0 K, 410 kJ/m3 at 300 K, and 215 kJ/m3 at 600 K without demagnetization effect. Even with a demagnetization factor of 0.3, the Fe4CoSi alloy still possesses the (BH)max of 268 kJ/m3 at room temperature. The Fe4CoSi exhibits better permanent magnetic properties compared with ferrites and SmCo5. This may imply that the Fe4CoSi alloy can be a potential Fe-based gap permanent magnet between ferrite and Nd-Fe-B (or Sm–Co) at room temperature. © 2024

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Disk flower-like structure of PANI Modulated electronic transport dynamics of SrCoxZnxFe12−2xO19 ferrite

    Thakur M.; Singh C.; Jotania R.B.; Tekou Carol T.T.; Srivastava A.K.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 72-89

    Abstract : This study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the low frequency-based electrical characteristics of ferrite composites, exploring the influence of morphology on tunning and optimizing dielectric and conductivity relaxation. Specifically, composites of PANI: Sr CoxZnxFe12−2xO19 in 1:4 ratio by weight, with varying levels of substitution x = 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 were synthesized using the physical blending method. X-ray diffraction analysis of composites shows the existence of M-type hexagonal and PANI particles, along with some secondary phases in all synthesized samples. The morphology of composites revealed disk flower-like and hexagonal platelet-type structures of PANI and hexagonal ferrite, respectively. Substituting Co–Zn ions induced a non-linear increase in grain size from 0.781 to 1.566 μm, calculated using ImageJ software. The dielectric and electrical properties of composites were examined over the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz. The replacement of Fe ions with Co–Zn ions resulted in a non-linear variation in conductivity and is maximum for FP3 (1.33 × 10−2 Ω−1m−1) at 2 MHz. The complex impedance spectra deviated from an ideal Debye type and were modeled using an equivalent circuit encompassing resistances of grain boundaries and grains, grain capacitance, and a constant phase element. Modulus and impedance spectra analysis illustrated the contribution of both grain and grain boundaries in their respective relaxations. The simulation of impedance parameters in EIS software elucidated a substantial value of Cg = 290 μF for FP1, which aligned with the large-sized grain observed in FESEM micrographs. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    First-principles study of the thickness-dependent shift current in γ-GeSe thin layers

    Park I.; Kim J.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 90-95

    Abstract : We investigate the stable structure and optoelectronic properties of thin γ-GeSe layers through first-principles calculations. We examine three stacking configurations (A-A, A-B, and A-C) of adjacent quadruple layers (QLs), revealing the structural stability of A-C stacking. Due to broken inversion symmetry in atomically thin γ-GeSe layers, shift currents are generated, which are very sensitive to their stacking order and thickness. Despite similar optical absorption trends in A-B and A-C stackings, their shift current responses differ significantly. The shift current is notably decreased at odd-number stackings for all cases, attributed to opposite generated flows between the top and bottom surfaces. The analysis of orbital contributions reveals the charge shift's origin in γ-GeSe. We also explore mechanical modifications, such as sliding and strain, demonstrating the tunability of the shift current spectrum in γ-GeSe. This research enhances our understanding of the optoelectronic response in atomically thin materials, providing valuable insights for future applications. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    Progress in TOPCon solar cell technology: Investigating hafnium oxide through simulation

    Rahman R.U.; Khokhar M.Q.; Hussain S.Q.; Mehmood H.; Yousuf H.; Jony J.A.; Park S.; Yi J.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 96-104

    Abstract : In the realm of solar energy technology, exploring hafnium oxide (HfO2) in Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact (TOPCon) solar cells is pivotal. This study delineates HfO2's evolution from semiconductor applications, highlighting its crucial role in enhancing TOPCon solar cell performance. Utilizing ATLAS Silvaco software, the study anticipates a 21.3% increase in charge carrier lifetime through optimized HfO2 layers, addressing challenges in interface engineering and scalability. Innovative research integrates hafnium oxide (HfO2) into TOPCon solar cells, marking a leap in photovoltaic technology. Utilizing ATLAS Silvaco simulations, it shows that HfO2 layers can significantly enhance cell performance, increasing charge carrier lifetime by 21.3% and potentially boosting efficiency by 25%. This underscores HfO2's advantages, like a higher dielectric constant and thermal stability, in improving solar cell efficiency and durability. Future efforts target refining deposition processes, projecting a 25% boost in overall power conversion efficiency (PCE). Emphasizing HfO2's significance in solar cell technology, this research contributes to global sustainable energy initiatives. Integrating HfO2 in TOPCon solar cells signifies a key achievement in harnessing clean, renewable energy. Upcoming research focuses on experimental validation, interface engineering, optimization, stability assessments, scalability, and collaborative studies, aiming to leverage HfO2's potential for elevating solar energy conversion technologies. © 2024

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  • Article 2024-07-31

    G-C3N4/TiO2 nanotube array for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Abish V.S.J.; Raja D.H.; Davidson D.J.
    Curr. Appl. Phys. 2024; 63: 105-115

    Abstract : Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) have made significant breakthroughs in the field of photocatalysis because of their unique features, such as environmental friendliness, low cost and good stability. Herein, we present the improved photo-electrochemical performance under AM 1.5G irradiation of three different photoanodes based on TNT coated with g-C3N4 via the effortless thermal treatment of anodized TNT sheets over melamine (TNT-M), urea (TNT-U) and dicyanamide (TNT -D). A maximum photocurrent of up to 0.14 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V (vs. RHE) is obtained under illumination using AM 1.5 G light source for TNT-D, which is ten times greater than pristine TNT (0.014 mA cm−2). A good photoelectrochemical stability with efficient charge transfer is observed, and electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that better photoelectrochemical performance is due to the reduced electron-hole pair recombination via the development of heterojunction between TNT and g-C3N4 compared to the bare-TNT electrode. © 2024 Korean Physical Society

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July 2024
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